Europa poloneză a apărării

Apropo de Summitul UE din decembrie dedicat apărării și mai ales apropo de opoziția britanică la constituirea unor capacități europene de apărare, recomand un articol care ilustrează cât de mult impune Polonia pe agenda securității europene.
Cam toate programele de înzestrare din Polonia au două elemente constante: primul, sisteme destinate apărării teritoriale duale, națională și europeană și, a doilea, un puternic capitol industrial național destinat cooperării europene, în curs de sincronizare cu multe dintre direcțiile preconizate de EDA- European Defence Agency.
Ministerul polonez al apărării dorește să achiziționeze aproximativ 100 de drone.

 

Poland Seeks To Boost Drone Fleet

Polish industry has developed autopilot, communication links, optronics and other payloads for UAVs bought from Israel and the US. Composite material is another area of domestic development.
The aim now is to build Polish UAVs with European industrial cooperation.
“We’re looking to establish cooperation with European industry,” Bartosiewicz said. Working with France, Germany, Spain or another European country would help plug Poland’s capability gap, he said.
Technology transfer will be one of the terms for European cooperation, he said.
By building its own UAVs, Poland falls in line with NATO’s selection of intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance capabilities as a priority for the alliance, Jachol said.
A second priority for Polish forces is space imagery, which offers the potential for cooperation with France, he said.
Meanwhile, Israel failed to win a tender for mini-UAVs because of a weakness in technical support, Bartosiewicz said.

 

Putere – competență = declin

The Decay of American Political Institutions by FRANCIS FUKUYAMA
There are many diagnoses of America’s current woes. In my view, there is no single “silver bullet” cause of institutional decay, or of the more expansive notion of decline. In general, however, the historical context of American political development is all too often given short shrift in much analysis. If we look more closely at American history as compared to that of other liberal democracies, we notice three key structural characteristics of American political culture that, however they developed and however effective they have been in the past, have become problematic in the present. 
The first is that, relative to other liberal democracies, the judiciary and the legislature (including the roles played by the two major political parties) continue to play outsized roles in American government at the expense of Executive Branch bureaucracies. Americans’ traditional distrust of government thus leads to judicial solutions for administrative problems. Over time this has become a very expensive and inefficient way to manage administrative requirements.
The second is that the accretion of interest group and lobbying influences has distorted democratic processes and eroded the ability of the government to operate effectively. 

 

China, Japonia și premisele unei crize majore în Pacific

Pe 23 noiembrie China anunță stabilirea unei zone de supraveghere aeriană (ADIZ  -prescurtare folosită în limba engleză)  în Marea Chinei de Sud, zonă care se suprapune celei japoneze stabilită aproximativ prin 1978.
Stabilirea unor asemenea zone este o practică obișnuită, de nautră unilaterală, dar care a dezvoltat în timp și un set de reguli de negociere informală între state. Când aceste zone se suprapun atunci lucrurile devin sensibile pentru că este semnul unei suspiciuni reciproce accentuate și că, de fapt, ascuns de ochii lumii, se desfășoară o confruntare informațională. Războiul ascuns presupune în acest caz mai multe acțiuni de spionaj militar, sporirea culegerii de informații privind securitatea aeriană și maritimă, deplasarea în zonă a mai multor sisteme și capacități militare.
Deja în presă se discută de planurile Chinei pentru a dezvolta și alte asemenea zone. Motivul real al deciziei chineze este unul mai mult operațional, pentru că o asemenea zonă poate fi stabilită unilateral, nu există norme internaționale, atunci toate zborurile aviației chineze în apropiere de insulele Senkaku sunt justificate de necesitatea de a supraveghea întreaga zonă. deci legal, la nivelul legisalției internaționale China nu poate fi direct atacată cu o plângere la ONU pentru încălcarea suveranității.
Așa se evită internaționalizarea problemei într-o primă fază, cel puțin. În plus, prin escaladarea prezenței militare, China forțează Japonia să se așeze la masa negocierilor privind statutul insulelor Senkaku.
Evaluarea mea merge spre acest scenariu, China dorește o negociere, iar Japonia trebuia cumva convinsă, chiar și militar, să accepte negocierea. Altfel, cele două dispozitive de supraveghere militară se vor șicana reciproc.
Răspunsul Japoniei a venit pe data de 27 noiembrie când Camera superioară a Parlamentului va aproba legea înființării unui Consiliu de Securitate Națională, proiect după model american și inițiat de premierul japonez în 2006, reluat în februarie 2013 prin stabilirea unui grup de experți care trebuiau să:
Abe aide Yosuke Isozaki, who is part of the 13-member panel, said discussions will focus on how to cut through Japan’s various layers of bureaucracy to expedite intelligence-gathering. Abe is especially keen to break the sectionalism between ministries that prevents diverse information from reaching the prime minister’s office. Sursa
Noul Consiliu de securitate se va întruni bilunar, va evalua starea de securitate și mai ales va fi o interfață interoperabilă cu dispozitivul militar american din zonă.
China se va confrunta acum cu un alt model de prezență militară coordonată americano -japoneză care va fi discutată operativ și aprobată (și nu doar diplomatic ca până acum) la nivel politico-strategic între Washington și Tokyo.
Din reacția japoneză reiese că, pe termen scurt, Tokyo nu dorește o negociere privind insulele în dispută.
Prelungirea poziției japoneze pe termen mediu (5-10 ani) și intensificarea operațiilor aeriene militare chineze va conduce la creșterea probablilității unui incident militar între cele două țări.
În concluzie, în următorii 5-10 ani ne putem aștepta la o criză majoră în zona Pacific.

Mici coincidențe în scandalul Snowden

5 martie 2013– Ce se discuta în Privacy and Civil Liberties Oversight Board    în minuta ședinței.

Despre conceptul de ”privacy” și mai ales despre cooperarea cu Europa

p.7 – ”Ms. Brand expressed her agreement with Board member remarks. Ms. Brand reiterated Ms. Cook’s expression of the Board’s appreciation of the time and effort federal agencies dedicated to the background briefings provided to the Board. Ms. Brand indicated that she was impressed by the attention given to establishing processes to protect privacy and civil liberties. Ms. Brand also noted that she is looking forward to an opportunity to obtain public input on the question of “what is privacy.”

Mr. Dempsey noted that the term privacy is used as an umbrella term for a set of principles and that it will be helpful to the Board to explore this question.
Ms. Wald stated that “privacy” has not been comprehensively or conceptually defined by the courts and that the Board is interested in hearing from experts in this field. Ms. Wald further noted that members of the Board has met with European privacy officials and has additional meetings scheduled. The Board is interested in discussing the types of issues they are confronted with and how they are handled.

Și problema accesului la informațiile privind programele anti-teroriste.

p.9- ”Ms. Wald noted that some agencies seem to have defined for themselves those programs they consider to be counterterrorism programs and, therefore, the Board has not had occasion to specifically identify programs as “counterterrorism programs.” Ms. Cook added that agencies have not attempted to restrict the Board’s access to information on the basis that a particular program is not counterterrorism-related. Ms. Wald noted that some agencies have distinguished between international and domestic counterterrorism programs.

Decizii luate de Privacy and Civil Liberties Oversight Board

p. 6. – ”Ms. Cook next proposed that the Board direct the Office of the Director of National Intelligence to provide the Board with an inventory of all of the privacy and civil liberties training provided to federal, state, local, and tribal employees engaged in counterterrorism programs funded by the federal government. Ms. Cook further proposed that this inventory be submitted to the Board within 120 days of communicating the task to the ODNI. Ms. Cook asked if Board members had comments on the proposal. There being none, Ms. Cook asked that the Board approve the proposal. The proposal was approved – 4 ayes, 0 nays.

120 de zile, adică 4 luni, adică martie, aprilie, mai, iunie 2013- era termenul la care trebuia transmis raportul.
Deci în iunie 2013 Directorul pentru National Intelligence trebuia să prezinte inventarul tuturor cursurilor privind protejarea vieții private și a libetăților civile prin care au fost instruiți cei care lucrau în programele anti-teroriste finanțate de SUA.
Nu știu dacă raportul a ajuns, nici nu vreau să îl caut,, dar știm altceva, în iunie, pe 6 iunie, începe sarbanda:
BBC credit
6 June 2013: Guardian journalist Glenn Greenwald reports the US National Security Agency (NSA) is collecting the telephone records of millions of Verizon customers under a top secret court order granting the government unlimited authority to obtain communications data for a three-month period.
7 June: The Guardian and Washington Postreport the NSA is accessing the systems of US internet giants including Google and Facebook, and collecting data under a previously undisclosed surveillance programme called Prism. The programme allows officials to collect material including emails, live chats and search histories.
8 June: US President Barack Obama says the government surveillance programmes strike „the right balance” between security and privacy and are closely overseen by Congress and the courts.
Snowden named and in Hong Kong
9 June: Edward Snowden, 29, is named as the source of the intelligence leaks. Speaking from Hong Kong, he explains why he went public.
10 June: Mr Snowden checks out of his Hong Kong hotel and his whereabouts remain unknown as it is rumoured the US is pursuing a criminal investigation against him.
11 June: The EU demands US assurances that Europeans’ rights are not being infringed by the newly-revealed surveillance programmes. Mr Snowden’s employer, defence contractor Booz Allen Hamilton, says it has fired the infrastructure analyst for violating its ethics code.

Concluzia:

În ciuda aparențelor și a scandalului media, cred că de fapt președintele Obama are o mare oportunitate să reformeze politica americană în sfera programelor anti-teroriste.

Europa pare dornică să dea o mână de ajutor partenerului american.

Republicanii nu sunt așa de entuziasmați.

Bonus câteva reacții interesante.

19 iunie 2013- Obama relying on untested oversight board on NSA

The board’s chairman, former Federal Trade Commission official David Medine, was confirmed by the Senate in May 2013.

Three members — Medine, Cook and Brand — have worked as lawyers at WilmerHale, a top legal and lobbying shop in Washington. Medine lobbied for several years for data security groups, including Iron Mountain and the National Association for Information Destruction, a trade association for shredding and other information disposal companies. Brand lobbied for Google, T-Mobile and a pharmaceutical association.

21 iunie 2013 – Obama to meet with privacy and civil liberties board

articolul anunță că: ”Obama is also slated Friday to nominate former government attorney James Comeyto be the new director of the FBI.”

 

22 septembrie 2013- Obama’s independent spying review team is closely tied to White House

The review panel overlaps with a similar effort by a second advisory group. In July, Obama asked the independent Privacy and Civil Liberties Oversight Board to report on the NSA programs and their effects on civil liberties. While PCLOB’s work is expected to take months and has no deadline, Obama ordered the review group to report interim findings within 60 days and provide a final report by Dec. 15.

‘PCLOB chairman David Medine said recently that his group’s purview was different because it was not subject to review by the White House. PCLOB’s hearings so far have been conducted in public, although the group has been given classified briefings by national security officials.

„We’re proceeding regardless of other groups’ timelines,” Medine said.